Super-hard abrasives are a crucial component of grinding tools, consisting mainly of diamonds, cubic boron nitride (CBN), and a bonding agent. Renowned for their exceptional wear resistance, diamonds, and CBN are employed to create super-hard abrasive tools that differ from conventional bonded abrasive tools. Besides the super-hard abrasive layer, these tools also comprise a transition layer and a base. While the super-hard abrasive layer performs the cutting action, the base provides support during the grinding process and is typically composed of materials like metal, or ceramics. The transition layer serves to connect the base and the super-hard abrasive layer, usually comprising the bonding agent or being omitted altogether. Common bonding agents include resins, metals, electroplated metals, and ceramics.
Super-hard Abrasives Manufacturing Process:
The manufacturing process of super-hard abrasive tools involves several crucial steps, including material allocation, mixing, molding, heat treatment, processing, and inspection. Depending on the bonding agent used, the manufacturing techniques may vary. For instance, ceramic bonding agents typically utilize the pressing method. After weighing the abrasive and bonding agent according to the prescribed ratio, they are mixed thoroughly in a blending machine and then placed in a metal mold. A press is employed to form the abrasive tool blank, which is subsequently dried and loaded into a kiln for firing. The firing temperature usually reaches around 1300°C, although it can be lower when using low-melting-point bonding agents, which fire below 1000°C. The tool is then accurately processed into the required dimensions and shapes, and the final product undergoes a rigorous inspection.
Resin bonding agent abrasive tools are generally formed at room temperature using a press, although some applications employ a hot pressing technique involving heating while applying pressure. After molding, the tool is hardened in a curing furnace at a temperature range of 180 to 200°C when using phenolic resins as the bonding agent. Rubber bonding agent abrasive tools are commonly created using a rolling machine for mixing and rolling into thin sheets, which are then shaped through punching. Alternatively, loose materials are placed in metal molds and pressed using a press. The tool is then vulcanized in a vulcanization tank at a temperature of 165 to 180°C.
For super-hard abrasive tools with metal bonding agents, two primary manufacturing methods are used: powder metallurgy and electroplating. These methods are mainly applied to super-hard abrasive tools. In the powder metallurgy process, bronze and other materials are used as bonding agents. After blending, the mixture is subjected to hot pressing or pressed at room temperature before undergoing sintering and processing. The electroplating method employs nickel or nickel-cobalt alloys as the plating metal, bonding the abrasive onto the base through electroplating techniques to create the tool. Specialized types of abrasive tools include sintered corundum tools and fiber abrasive tools. Sintered corundum tools are made by mixing aluminum oxide micro-powder with an appropriate amount of chromium oxide, forming it, and sintering it at approximately 1800°C. These tools feature a dense structure and high strength, making them ideal for processing precision parts like timepieces and instruments. Fiber abrasive tools, on the other hand, are made from fibers (e.g., nylon) containing or coated with abrasives. With excellent elasticity, these tools are primarily used for polishing metal materials and their products.
The manufacturing process of super-hard abrasives is a meticulous and intricate procedure, essential for producing cutting-edge tools with outstanding wear resistance and cutting performance. By understanding and implementing the various techniques and bonding agents involved in this process, manufacturers can create superior super-hard abrasive tools suitable for diverse grinding applications. These advanced tools play a vital role in precision grinding across numerous industries, ensuring the efficient shaping and finishing of materials for enhanced product quality and performance.
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