Research status and development of diamond abrasive belts

Release Date:2023-10-11 10:05

In industries such as machinery, gemology, glass, and ceramics, the traditional use of common abrasives like brown fused alumina, white fused alumina, and silicon carbide in coated abrasives has presented challenges. These materials have lower hardness, leading to higher abrasive consumption, significant environmental pollution, and less-than-ideal processing efficiency. Developed countries in the West, prioritizing human health and environmental protection, have been advocating for the use of super-hard material-coated abrasives like diamond sandpaper and belts as alternatives to common abrasives. This shift is due to the fact that abrasives made from common materials like corundum, silicon carbide, and alumina generate a substantial amount of dust during use, which poses health risks. In contrast, coated abrasives made from super-hard materials, particularly diamond, have an extended lifespan and produce minimal dust, aligning with the increasingly stringent international standards for human health and environmental protection.

Diamond Abrasive Belts: Structure and Types

1. Substrate

The substrate serves as the carrier for the abrasive and binder, determining the flexibility of the abrasive belt. Common substrate types include paper, fabric, composite materials, non-woven fabric, and polyester film, among others. These substrates can have open or closed structures, and closed substrates may have joints or be seamless. Performance indicators for substrates include radial tensile strength, circumferential tensile strength, radial (circumferential) elongation rate, and the pore density of non-woven fabric substrates.

2. Abrasive

The abrasive, acting as the cutting edge, forms the main body of the abrasive tool. Super-hard abrasive belts use materials like diamond and cubic boron nitride (CBN). In some cases, common abrasives may be added to reduce costs or enhance performance. Performance indicators for abrasives include grain size and composition, compressive strength, impact toughness, abrasive shape, and planting density.

3. Binder

The binder adheres to the abrasive to the substrate, providing the abrasive tool with a specific shape and strength. In coated abrasives, the binder typically consists of substrate treatment agents, primer, and topcoat. Binders fall into two main categories: animal glue and synthetic resin. Synthetic resin glues are more commonly used and often employ thermosetting resins such as epoxy resin, phenolic resin, urea-formaldehyde resin, and alkyd resin. Performance indicators for binders include adhesive strength, peel strength, wear resistance, and flexibility.


Types of Diamond Abrasive Belts

1. Resin Full-Coated Diamond Abrasive Belts

Resin full-coated belts evenly distribute abrasives across the entire surface of the substrate. These belts can be manufactured using either manual or mechanical coating methods. Due to the long lifespan of super-hard abrasive belts and the small scale of production, manual or semi-manual coating methods may be employed to reduce equipment costs when performance requirements are not stringent. However, manual coating may result in uneven distribution of abrasives and adhesives, leading to inconsistencies in belt thickness, abrasive distribution, and orientation, thus affecting product quality.

2. Resin Spotting Diamond Abrasive Belts

The simpler manufacturing equipment and lower investment costs associated with this method have made it an attractive option. Additionally, spotting can improve the flexibility of resin full-coated products, which tend to harden after curing. Moreover, the presence of evenly distributed gaps in spotting products can lead to superior abrasive performance when grinding hard plastic materials or dry grinding.

3. Electroplated Diamond Abrasive Belts

Electroplated belts are currently the most commonly produced type by manufacturers worldwide. They are favored for their simple production equipment and high adhesive strength and wear resistance compared to resin-based belts. However, issues with substrate strength and joint strength in closed electroplated belts require further research and resolution.

The research and development of diamond abrasive belts are pivotal in transforming the coated abrasives industry. With their superior cutting capabilities and environmental benefits, diamond abrasive belts are poised to revolutionize material processing across various industries. By understanding the different types and their respective applications, manufacturers can leverage these advancements to achieve higher precision, efficiency, and environmental sustainability in their processes.

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